Aquarium Care

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Archive for the ‘Aquarium Maintenance’ Category

How to Obtain Clear and Good Aquarium Water Quality

Aquarium with neon tetras

Water quality management should be a very important consideration for those who own an aquarium. This is made possible with the help of different products in the market such as EcoBio-Block among others. However, you must also be refilling the tank regularly, have proper feeding habits and also good filtration in order to have the best aquarium water quality.

Majority of the people give up keeping an aquarium as a hobby within two years because the task of maintaining clarity all the time is very challenging. You have to clean the tank once or twice a month. Even after doing this in the right way, cloudy appearance might still occur.

It is difficult to come up with one solution for the cloudy appearance because it is caused by many issues. However, you should be encouraged because the problem can be dealt with easily. Gravel that is not washed properly can result to this during the first setup. Therefore, the residue will be washed out when the tank is filled.

The gravel can also react with the liquid to cause leaching of chemicals resulting in clouding. It is good to first test the substrate before you could fill up the tank. This is done by first knowing the pH of the water before the substrate could be added. You should add small amount of substrate and then leave it for some days. You might have to change the substrate if the pH happens to rise.

A cloudy appearance might also be caused by the bacteria bloom that the tank of the fish receives after the beginning of the nitrogen cycle. This happens many times so you can choose to wait it out or do partial refills during the first days. The aquarium might also be having more than enough fish food or a lot of fish waste. This will result to a build up of bacteria.

The other causes of this problem can also be excessive light, a lot of nutrients and also imbalance in the tank. This means you might go a long way in order to tackle the problem. However, EcoBio-Block can be very helpful in this situation. You only have to rinse the block in water that is free from chlorine. You need to soak the block through the night before you could drop it into your first tank.

The tank content will be clarified and the speed of nitrogen cycle will be increased once this step is used. It also eliminates bad smell because the new tank syndrome will be shortened. This is the best way of enjoying better aquarium water quality even without frequent refills.

 

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Sticky: Cloudy Fish Tanks – Finding the Cause and How to Solve It

Cloudy Aquarium

Cloudy Aquarium

Many a new aquarium owner has panicked when their tank has taken on the appearance of what one such owner described to me as “a smoke filled room at a party.” In aquarium lexicon, we call such smoky appearance “cloudiness” because of its resemblance to the wispy clouds that sometimes appear in the sky. Everyone who keeps fish as a hobby wants their tank or tanks to be sparkling clean and clear at all times. Cloudy fish tanks look unsightly, and the water in these tanks can seriously harm the health of your fish. What causes these cloudy fish tanks, and what is the best way to get rid of the cloudiness?

The water clarity in a fish tank is generally affected by several factors, and the color of the water can often be a clue as to what is causing it to be cloudy. The water in a fish tank that has just been set up will often display a gray or white tint. This is called a “bacterial bloom” and it is very common in new tanks, for the nutrients and the bacteria in the water are imbalanced.

If your tank is so new that you have not added fish to it, dust from one or more of the decorations you added, or from the gravel or other substrate you placed at the bottom of the tank may be the cause of the cloudiness you see. Any item that goes into your fish tank must be made for that purpose, and you must rinse it well beforehand. When bacterial bloom appears in a fish tank that has already been established, your tank filter may not be working properly. You may be overfeeding your fish, or you may have too many fish in too small an aquarium.

A green cloudiness in your tank water means you are dealing with a sudden algae bloom. There are several reasons for an algae bloom some of which mimic the causes of a bacterial bloom. For example, when there is too much waste matter in your tank, be it left over food or the waste products from your fish, the bacteria from this waste converts into nitrates. As these nitrates grow in number, an algae bloom is imminent. Leaving the tank light on too many hours a day encourages the growth of green algae, and so does a high phosphate level in the tank water.

You may sometimes see a yellow color in your cloudy fish tanks. Decorative driftwood, decayed plant matter from aquarium plantings, fish waste, and dissolved organic carbons, often called DOC, can all be the cause of yellow cloudy water. Occasionally, you may also see a brown cloudiness in your tank water. This is caused from an overgrowth of brown algae. Brown algae can be caused by the tank not getting enough light, or from certain types of driftwood that have been placed in the tank.

By eliminating the causes of the different varieties of cloudy tank water, you can make caring for your aquarium much easier. Partial water changes of 10 to 20 percent of the water can help, as can making sure the filter on your tank is of the proper size. In order to remove the cloudiness from the water, and to make sure it does not come back, you need to see to it that your tank has a good supply of beneficial bacteria. This point confuses many newcomers to the aquarium hobby. They are so sure that bacteria are a bad thing that they balk when told it is needed in their tank! However, once they understand about good vs. bad bacteria, they are eager to know what they can do in order to maintain a colony of the good bacteria. Fortunately, there are some good solutions available. One of the best for cloudy water is the EcoBio-Block. When hobbyists learn of the advantages that go along with placing a product from EcoBio-Block in their aquarium, they agree that this is the easiest solution to the problem.

These products contain live beneficial bacteria, which multiply and make their way into the tank water every 30 minutes or so. They work in new set-ups as well as established aquariums to establish a nitrifying bacteria colony. This will take care of most cloudy water naturally, cuts down on the need for water changes and vacuuming the gravel or substrate, and will last for years. You could almost say that EcoBio-Block products are an aquarium owner’s best friend!

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Aquarium Care: Solving Mysterious Deaths In Your Aquarium

by Ruby Bayan

sickfishweb“Help me! It’s my fish! I just fed them this morning, none of them looked sick. Now they’re dead!” Bob’s voice quivered over the phone.

“Take it easy, Bob. I’ll be right there.” You rush to your friend’s house to find him sobbing over the coffee table where two of his favorite Oscars lay dead on a paper towel.
You examine the fishes — there are no indications of disease. No white spots, no reddish lesions, no parasites attached, and no hole in the head.

“I was gone for just a couple of hours.” Bob explains. “When I got back, they were…” he chokes.

You know Bob to be especially fond of his fishes and had been successful in raising his Oscars for quite a while now. This is clearly one of those “mysterious death” cases — a challenge, surely, but not impossible to solve.

“I’m sorry about your Oscars, Bob. Just relax and let me look around to see if I can determine the cause of death — maybe find the murder weapon. This will have to be a crime scene investigation.” You get excited at the prospect of solving a mystery. Bob can only hold back his tears, comforted by your presence and concern.

Examining the Scene of the Crime

You approach the 50-gallon aquarium and give it a close look. The first thing you eliminate as the cause of death is incompatibility. Bob had no other fishes in the tank that could compete with the Oscars. You spot three Siamese Algae eaters doing their thing among the plants in the background. They couldn’t possibly have harassed a couple of 4-inch Oscars to death.
Oscars of this size are still relatively juvenile, so, they obviously didn’t die of old age.

Could it have been lack of oxygen? Certainly the tank is far from being overstocked, so you look for decaying food and rotting debris that could sap the oxygen level. The tank looks impeccably clean — for an Oscar environment. Bob had been taking care of his fishes well. In fact, he had added an EcoBio-Block, strategically located close to the airstone.

The next thing you check is the decor. Bob can be extra creative with his decor. Had he also been safety-conscious? You’ve seen him experiment with electric blue substrate and sleepy-hollow-type driftwood, so you want to check out how innovative he has been with the decorations in what is now the scene of the crime.

Could one of the rock pile formations have toppled over and hit the Oscars while they frolicked underneath? Could the fast-growing fish have been accidentally stuck in a hole or crevice? Are there any sharp or pointed formations that could’ve caused a fatal concussion of the highly active couple? You look through the front, side, and back of the tank — negative on all counts.

Signs of Breaking and Entering

You turn to Bob, his gaze frozen on his dearly departed pets. “They look like they’re just sleeping,” he whispers.

“I need to ask you a few questions, Bob. Are you up to it?”

“Sure. Ye.” Bob raises his eyes for just a second, and takes a deep breath.

“We’re going to try and eliminate the possibility that contamination or the introduction of something toxic caused your Oscars’ death.” You proceed with the investigation, trying to sound very professional.

“Did you recently medicate the tank?” Malachite green and methylene blue are common medication for parasites and fungus, but extended use or an overdose can also kill the beneficial bacteria that help maintain the ideal environmental conditions in the tank. The death and absence of the bacteria can lead to an ammonia or nitrite spike that kill fish in no time. Bob said he has had no need to administer any type of medication.

“Did you bring in new fish that you failed to quarantine before including in the tank?” Newly bought fish come from “unknown” environments — although looking healthy, they could be contaminated with all sorts of microorganisms and parasites that could unleash a fatal and unpredictable epidemic. The same is true with the water the new fish were transported in.

Bob assures you he always quarantines new fish, and the newest one he put in that tank was a couple of the algae eaters, several months ago.

“Do you have sick fishes in your other tanks?” Bob has two other tanks and you’re wondering if he has sick fishes in there. Because if he does, he should not be sharing nets, scrapers, decor, and equipment between sick tanks and well tanks due to the risk of contamination. He should even be washing his hands well after doing any form of maintenance on hospital or quarantine tanks.

“Nobody has been sick lately. I’ve been very careful with contamination,” Bob answers, almost resenting your insinuations.

“Did you just do a water change?” You’re thinking it’s possible that Bob may have done a considerable water change and he may have forgotten how much chlorine the tap water has.

High concentrations of chlorine attack the fishes’ gills and can cause death due to asphyxiation.

Before you can follow up on that question, Bob shoots back with, “The last one was five days ago, and, yes, I always make sure the new water has no chlorine, and has the same pH and temperature as the water in the tank.” Okay, so that’s out of the way.

“Would you mind if I look at your supply of fish food?”

Bob points to the side of the stand where he keeps his containers of flakes and pellets. “The frozen food are in a covered plastic container in the freezer,” he adds. You check the expiration dates on all of the labels, and examine the food for molds or unusual appearance. Even the best fish food can turn into something lethal. You ask Bob if he trusts his live food vendors — he swears by them.

You give the tank a second look for anything potentially toxic to the Oscars. Could Bob have introduced a new decor that he failed to clean? Is any of the stuff in his tank water soluble or metallic? Once again, nothing raises suspicion. It’s time to test the water.

The Lab Reports

“Where’s your water test kit, Bob?”

As Bob pulls out his kit, you glance quickly at the tank’s thermometers — one close to the surface at one end of the tank, the other submerged close to the bottom at the other end. Both of them read 75 degrees.

Meticulously, Bob arranges his testing paraphernalia and volunteers to check the water himself. He starts with the pH. Because his tank had been long established, he expects the pH to be a little below the neutral 7.0. A high reading would indicate the possibility of high and toxic ammonia content. The pH test reads 6.5. And the ammonia level comes out normal (below .3 mg/liter), which is expected because if ammonia had been high, the water would’ve had a yellowish tint and given off a pungent smell.

How about nitrite or nitrate poisoning? In ideal conditions, the ammonia released by fishes through respiration and excretion are converted to nitrites (by beneficial bacteria), which are then converted to nitrates (also by beneficial bacteria), which are then absorbed by plants as fertilizers. Nitrates become toxic above 100 mg/liter, but this shouldn’t happen if Bob had been doing regular water changes. Besides, he knew that the EcoBio-Blockwould’ve done its job providing the beneficial bacteria that controls ammonia, and nitrite levels and also appears to have some effect on nitrates as well.

Nitrite poisoning ranks high in the list of culprits for the Oscars’ death because it kills almost instantly and its victims die in full color. When the oxygen supply in the water becomes insufficient, brought about by overstocking, overfeeding, decaying food and debris, and improper filtration or aeration, nitrites are not converted to nitrates. At nitrite levels of higher than 10 mg/liter, the water becomes toxic to most fishes.

“If it’s nitrite poisoning I have only myself to blame,” Bob sighs. Afraid of the truth, he makes you conduct the test. Result: normal. You hit another dead end.

More Poisons

You widen the area of inspection and look around the room for any telltale evidence of another kind of poisoning — biohazards.

Toxic fumes dissolve in water and although a bit remote, it can accumulate to a level deadly enough to the residents of an aerated aquarium.

“Has anyone come in the room to clean?” You ask Bob who looks more composed now.
Bob looks at you and glances around what he always refers to as his domain of organized chaos. “Does it look like someone came in to clean?” He drops a hint of sarcasm.

“I’m just wondering — someone may have used an aerosol detergent or glass cleaner pretty close to the tank. Those wood shine sprays, furniture cleaners, and carpet deodorizers can contain toxic chemicals, you know. You sure you didn’t use them lately then submerged your hand in the aquarium? Just want to be sure.”

Bob gives you the what-the-hell-are-you-talking-about look. So, instead of asking another question, you just make a mental note that he doesn’t smoke and it doesn’t look like paint fumes is a suspect. You move on.

“Do you know if you have copper plumbing? I read that copper poisoning is a real threat to fish. Copper is sometimes used in medicines to fight snails and algae. And copper pipes can contaminate tap water.” You just want to cover all the bases. Bob says the house was built just two years ago and he doubts they used copper pipes for plumbing. He’s never had to deal with snails or treat algae with chemicals.

“There wouldn’t be copper or other metal ores in your rock decor, would there?”

“Are you kidding?” Bob says. “Those rocks are inert — hard plastic. Looks real, huh?”

You’re running out of options. But there are still a few things you haven’t explored. You wanted to save it for last because you’re hoping you wouldn’t have to confront Bob with the idea that he had been killing his fishes very slowly for the longest time.

Slow Death

When humans suffer from stress, anxiety disorders, and unrelieved tension, their immune systems malfunction and the end result is mayhem of disorders such as headaches, muscle pain, poor coordination, depression, and a nervous breakdown.

Fish are also highly susceptible to stress that weakens the immune system. It’s possible that prolonged exposure to stress is the root cause of the sudden, yet inevitable, death of Bob’s Oscars. You want to know what could possibly have been stressful to the fishes. You start ruling out the obvious.

“You haven’t been moving the fishes around, have you?” You sit beside Bob and join him in staring at the tank that now looks so empty.

“Nope.” Bob answers quickly. “I’ve been tempted to hold them — they’re very friendly. They come to me when I approach the tank. They know when it’s time to feed them. But I’ve never held them. I’m afraid I’d hurt them.”

You noticed the wide screen TV and audio system across the room. “You know that fishes are highly sensitive to vibrations, right? You think your entertainment center gives them a headache?”

Bob looks at you with one raised eyebrow. “Come on, I deliberately put the TV and stereo across the room because I had learned my lesson. When I was younger, my bedroom was just half of this. I had to put my cassette player next to the aquarium. I wondered why my fishes never lasted more than a month. Then I noticed that every time I turned on the player the fishes darted around frantically. I did a little research and discovered that the vibrations of sound waves are four times ‘louder’ through water than through air. Therefore, loud sounds, tapping the aquarium walls and tank stands, and even slamming doors and windows can shock fishes out of their wits. I had been careful since then.”

“Speaking of shock,” you proceed, “fish don’t like sudden changes in anything. Has your water temperature been constant?”

Bob is eager to fill you in on how good a fishkeeper he has been. “I always check the water conditions. I check the temperature maybe three times a day. I know that fish are delicate creatures and maintaining an ideal environment is extremely important because unlike in the wild, the aquarium is a small, enclosed habitat that could easily go foul if unattended. I am not aware of any equipment malfunction or power failure that could’ve caused extreme conditions in the tank.”

“How about your feeding routine?”

“I was getting to that.” Bob continues. “Nutrition is very important to fish. Not just the right kind of food but also the proper manner of feeding. I give my Oscars a good variety of food, and in adequate amounts so they don’t become obese. I read the labels, too, to be sure I am providing them with all the necessary nutrients. I don’t want them suffering from some vitamin deficiency. And I never give too much too soon, especially if it’s a new type of food because they can get constipated that way. Constipation can kill, you know. But I’m sure that’s not what killed my Oscars.” Bob buries his face in his hands.

“Your water changes have been regular?” You explore another cause of stress.

“Yes,” Bob mumbles through his fingers. “Fifteen percent, every two weeks, conditioned water, like clockwork.”

Once again, you’re back to square one.

Lethal Weapon

You approach the coffee table and inspect the dead Oscars. You pick up a pen and flip one of them over.

Bob notices you and snaps, “Oh, no! You’re not thinking of doing an autopsy on my pets are you?”

You leave the Oscars and reassure Bob. “I may not have to.”

You rush back to the tank and trace the wiring of the lights, pumps, and heaters back to the wall socket. You notice that the socket doesn’t have a GFCI or Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter.

You unplug all the equipment and examine them one by one. Is any electrical part of the powerhead filter submerged in the water? Are the wires in the overhead reflector lamp properly insulated? They’re all clean.

You pull out the heater that’s camouflaged behind one of the rock formations, and… “Voila!

Here’s your culprit, Bob. Hairline cracks on your heater. Your fish were electrocuted.”

“How can that happen?” Bob looks over your shoulder, mystified.

“Your rock formation may have accidentally pressed on the heater and cracked the glass casing. The water seeped into the cracks and caused a short. Normally the short would trip a GFCI if you had one, but since you don’t have one, you may want to check your house wiring because it should’ve tripped your breaker fuse.

“The short in the heater caused an erratic current to run through the water. The Oscars were in close proximity to the heater when the current surged, and the electricity flowed through their bodies, killing them instantly. If you had been there and dipped your hand in the water, you would’ve been zapped as well.”

Bob falls back in the chair. “You mean because I didn’t have that grounding interrupter thing my fish and my own life were in danger all along?”

“Yep. Not just your Oscars but also you would’ve been toast. And it would’ve caused an electrical fire, too.”

“How did you figure it out?” Bob wanted to know what tipped you off.

“When strong electricity runs through the body of a fish, it snaps the fish’s vertebra causing instant death. When I flipped one of your Oscars, I noticed that it was limp, like it had a broken spine. That’s what led me to your wiring. Case closed.”

Bob thanks you for your help and condolences, and invites you to the funeral services at sunset. You put your arm around Bob’s shoulder and offer to help him check the house’s electrical wiring; that should be a lot simpler than solving the mystery of what causes healthy-looking fish to swim away to that great aquarium in the sky.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Top 20 Suspects in Mysterious Deaths:

  1. Incompatibility – fish could harass each other to death
  2. Lack of oxygen – asphyxiation is just one of its many complications
  3. Overfeeding – leads to pollution, obesity, and other problems
  4. Decaying food and debris – raises the level of toxic chemicals
  5. Décor accidents – fish bruised, crushed, snagged, or punctured for art’s sake
  6. Toxic or unsafe décor – unwashed, metallic, or contaminated
  7. Medication – read the fine print for the side effects
  8. Contamination – from sick fish, polluted water, infected tanks, or rotten food
  9. Chlorine poisoning – attacks the gills, and gags the fish
  10. Ammonia poisoning – like swimming in a pool of pee
  11. Nitrite poisoning – breathing in an alien atmosphere
  12. Copper poisoning – nobody survives a diet of metals
  13. Toxic fumes – they dissolve in the water
  14. Improper or inept handling – can injure externally and internally
  15. Sudden changes – not for the faint of heart
  16. Equipment failure – like pulling the plug on a life support system
  17. Loud vibrations – killing softly with loud songs
  18. Poor nutrition – a form of torture
  19. Constipation – can distress a fish to death
  20. Electric shock – just one zap and it’s all over

 

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Sticky: Aquarium Care: What is a pH?

by Ruby Bayan

I was first introduced to the concept of pH back in high school chemistry when we dipped little blue and pink strips of paper that changed color depending on the acidity or alkalinity of the solution. Of course, all I had to do was remember the acronym B-R-A, meaning “blue to red – acidic” to pass the subject. I didn’t foresee that I’d have to deal with the pH phenomenon for the rest of my life. Now that you’re hooked on the hobby, you will have to deal with it, too.

Let’s start with what exactly pH is and then we’ll elaborate on its role in the aquarium and why you need to know how to manage it.

Basic Concepts

pH is short for “pondus hydrogenii” meaning “potential hydrogen,” “power of hydrogen,” “weight of hydrogen,” and “predominance of hydrogen ions (H+)” as a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a particular solution.

The pH scale is expressed as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration ranging from 0 [high concentration of hydronium ions (H+) = acidic] to 14 [high concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) = alkaline/basic]. The pH concept was introduced by a Danish chemist, Soren Sorensen, in 1909 (if logarithmic formulas and chemical equations will help you better understand how the pH scale was devised, and how it is applied, the site on Sorensen would be an excellent resource).

Factors That Affect pH

Pure water has a pH value of 7 which is considered neutral (neither acidic nor basic), and generally the ideal condition for freshwater aquaria. However, various factors can cause the water parameters to swing several notches towards acidic or alkaline, which, although almost negligible, could be fatal to the fishes. Here are some examples:

  1. Water Source — normally, tap water would be within the neutral pH range but some water sources are naturally “soft” or “hard,” or chemically treated such that the pH level diverts from neutral.
  2. Substrate and Decor — your choice of substrate and decorative items will influence your tank’s pH reading over an extended period of time. At first, a substrate spiked with corals, shells, or limestone deposits will show high pH levels (influenced by the hardness or mineral content of the water), which could later on diminish as the minerals are used up. On the other hand, the presence of peat, or driftwood that leach tannins, can swing the scales towards the acidic side.
  3. Maturity of the Tank — the natural tendency for well-established tanks is to dip towards acidic. Fishes eventually adjust to this trend, but not if it falls into ranges that are already toxic to them.
  4. Plants — taking an active role in the nitrification process, plants help to maintain a relatively neutral pH by absorbing dissolved salts and waste products.
  5. Water Circulation and Aeration — without adequate aeration, carbon dioxide can remain trapped in the water and lower the pH (make the environment acidic).
  6. Overstocking, Overfeeding, Excess Medication, Poor Filtration — in short, inefficient tank maintenance can wreak havoc on your pH levels.

pH and You

Every well-meaning aquarist needs to have a pH test kit handy. Various types of kits are commercially available — they’re mostly inexpensive but will be a valuable tool in your efforts to maintain the ideal home for your pets.

Test your tap water to make sure it’s safe for the types of fishes you’ve chosen to keep. Remember to pre-check the parameters of the new water you bring in when you make water changes.
Test your aquarium water regularly (daily when setting up a new tank; once or twice a week for established tanks).

Consult your local fish store for the availability of buffer solutions in case you need to make drastic adjustments in your pH levels.

Add an EcoBio-Block to your tank. Its resident beneficial bacteria help control the conditions that can cause unhealthy changes to your pH level.

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Sticky: Aquarium Care Series: Too Many Fish in Your Aquarium

crowded-aquariumwebThere is a question that is brought up rather frequently by beginners in aquarium care, who have not been very successful after having seemingly followed all the basic instructions gleaned from books, the internet, or our dealer friends. They have given recommended foods in conservative amounts. They have good light and temperature control. But here is where the trouble starts, through the acceptance of a fallacious signal as to what constitutes “overcrowding.” The signal watched for is when the fishes gasp at the surface of the water, “blowing bubbles.”

That is a carry-over from the days when goldfish was King. Goldfish and other cool-water fishes are very sensitive to any shortage of oxygen in the water, or the presence of too much carbon dioxide. They quickly express their distress by breathing at the surface. Incidentally, I have often wondered how fishes, never before in such a situation, know enough to get a fresh supply of oxygen at the surface of the water.

Warm-water fishes are better equipped to get along in oxygen-deficient conditions. In a tank containing both goldfish and exotics (a combination not recommended) the goldfish will invariably be the first to register discomfort from overcrowding. The point that I am stressing is that “Tropicals” are apt to “suffer in silence.” When they come to the surface and stay there, conditions are not merely bad, but very bad.

Undetected crowding has been present for some time past, indicated by the poor condition of the fishes. Of course such symptoms can come from other causes, but crowding is one of the first to look for. That suspicion can be confirmed if frequent partial changes of water relieves the condition.

Water changes help keep the parameters within acceptable limits, help remove excess organic material such as waste and uneaten food, and also replenish required minerals in the water that the fish use up over time. If you prefer not to do as many water changes or are physically unable to, there are alternatives that can reduce your labor. My favorite is the EcoBio-Block, which is an aquarium care product that introduces beneficial bacteria into the aquarium (which keep the biological filter healthy) for water clarification. (It breaks down organic waste into safer by-products). This simple-to-use product then slowly leaches necessary minerals into the water to keep fish healthy, reduce fish loss, and help beginners become successful aquarists.

Advising a new aquarist at the height of his frenzy to go slowly in building up his tank of fishes is like talking against the tempest. Recently I fitted out a grandson with an aquarium and a suitable collection of fishes. All was lovely for a few weeks until he was bitten with the desire for more and more.

The dealer could not be blamed for selling to him, but the result was not hard to foresee – a general attack of “Ich.” Overcrowding does not necessarily cause that disease, but reduces the vitality of the fishes so that they are more subject to it.
“No aquarist ever got into trouble by having too few fishes.”

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